Author Topic: Plurals  (Read 253 times)

Offline heartsongjt

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  • A/K/A Jan (Sanford) Tetstone
« on: November 25, 2018, 04:40:14 AM »

When we ask, "What is the number of that noun?" we mean, "Does its form show that it refers to one or to more than one?"

(1) The plural of most nouns is formed regularly by adding s to the singular.Examples: word, words; fire, fires; book,books; cow, cows; bee, bees.

(2) The plural of some nouns is formed by adding es to the singular. Nouns ending in ch, sh, s, ss, z, x, come in this class. Examples: speech, speeches; dish, dishes; gas, gases; mass, masses; waltz, waltzes; box, boxes.

(3) A few nouns ending in o form their plurals by adding es instead of s only.Examples: mosquito, mosquitoes; potato,   potatoes; hero, heroes; tomato, tomatoes; echo, echoes.

However, the following nouns ending in o, form their plurals by adding s only. Examples: solo, solos; auto, autos; soprano, sopranos; piano, pianos; radio, radios; alto, altos.

(4) Nouns that end in y preceded by a consonant change the y to i and add es to form the plurals. Examples: lady, ladies;
baby, babies; fly, flies; fairy, fairies; story, stories.

(5) Nouns that end in y preceded by a vowel form their plurals by adding s only. Examples: day, days; toy, toys; valley,  valleys; chimney, chimneys. 

(6) Most nouns ending in f or fe form their plurals by changing the f or fe to v and adding es.Examples: life, lives; half, halves; knife, knives; beef, beeves; leaf, leaves; wife, wives; calf, calves.

  A few nouns ending in f or fe form their plurals by adding s only. Examples: handkerchief, handkerchiefs; roof, roofs; proof, proofs; chief, chiefs; belief, beliefs; giraffe, giraffes.

(7)  Some nouns are the same in both singular and plural. Examples: deer, sheep, salmon, Japanese, Chinese, trout.

(8 ) A few nouns do not add s but are changed in other ways to form their plurals. Examples:

  (a) Plurals that end in en: child, children; ox, oxen.

  (b) Plurals that change the vowel or vowels: mouse, mice; man, men; woman, women; tooth, teeth; foot,feet; goose, geese.

(9) The plurals of compound words are formed in various ways.

    (a) In some hyphenated nouns s is added to the first part of the compound word.
        Examples: brother-in-law, brothers-in-law.

    (b) Nouns that end in ful form their plurals by adding s at the end of the word.
        Examples: spoonful, spoonfuls; cupful, cupfuls.

     (c) Some compound nouns are made plural by changing each part of the word.
         Examples: manservant, menservants.

(10) The plurals of figures, signs, and letters are formed by adding  's.
     There are four 2's in 8.
     Indicate correctly all z's.
     There are three n's in Cincinnati.

Special forms that are important - Some nouns are used only in the plural.
     Examples: shears, scissors, glasses spectacles), trousers.

A few nouns that end in s are singular in meaning. Examples: physics, measles, politics, news, mathematics, civics.

Good luck with your writing.     jt

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